文章摘要
陈晓东,田琳,甘倍瑜,等.美国电力批发市场的信用额度评估机制分析[J].电力系统自动化,2018,42(19):98-105. DOI: 10.7500/AEPS20171221002.
CHEN Xiaodong,TIAN Lin,GAN Beiyu, et al.Appraisal Mechanism Analysis on Credit Limit Quantification of Wholesale Electricity Markets in the United States[J].Automation of Electric Power Systems,2018,42(19):98-105. DOI: 10.7500/AEPS20171221002.
美国电力批发市场的信用额度评估机制分析
Appraisal Mechanism Analysis on Credit Limit Quantification of Wholesale Electricity Markets in the United States
DOI:10.7500/AEPS20171221002
关键词: 信用管理  信用评级  结算风险  风险控制  电力市场
KeyWords: credit management  credit rating  settlement risk  risk management  electricity market
上网日期:2018-08-18
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
陈晓东 广州供电局有限公司, 广东省广州市510620  
田琳 广东电力交易中心有限责任公司, 广东省广州市 510080  
甘倍瑜 华南理工大学电力学院, 广东省广州市 510640  
季天瑶 华南理工大学电力学院, 广东省广州市 510640  
徐立新 华南理工大学经济与贸易学院, 广东省广州市 510640  
荆朝霞 华南理工大学电力学院, 广东省广州市 510640 zxjing@scut.edu.cn 
摘要:
      电力市场信用管理的本质是市场结算机构对结算风险的控制。有效的信用管理是保证高效、可持续电力交易的重要条件。通过对美国5个典型电力市场的信用管理,尤其是信用额度评估机制的归纳和分析,发现现有市场均对市场成员给予一定额度的无担保信用额度,具体额度一般与有形净资产、企业类型及信用评级有关;信用评级采用第三方信用评级与交易中心信用评估相结合的方式确定;用于确定无担保信用额度的资产基准类型、资产比率以及信用额度的最大限额、信用评估指标体系在不同市场中有不同的设置和要求。电力市场中的信用风险包括已经完成交易的风险及尚未开展交易的未来风险。以上市场的准入条款中都对市场成员的资产情况做出一定要求,其中,对不满足资产要求的,允许通过补充担保品的方式来获得准入资格。最后,指出了中国信用管理中存在的问题,包括量化计算方法缺乏、配套法律不健全、相关管理职能划分不够清晰等问题,建议从以下3个方面对信用体系进行研究:研究并建立适合中国国情的信用额度机制,尽快开展对不同类型交易风险的分析,建立市场准入机制并对市场参与者进行分层管理。
Abstract:
      The essence of the credit management in an electricity market is the control of settlement risks by settlement agencies. The effective credit management is an important condition for effective and sustainable electricity transactions. By the induction and analysis of the credit management of 5 typical electricity markets in the United States, especially the mechanism of credit limit quantification, the existing electricity markets all post the certain unsecured credit limits to the market participants, and the credit limits are usually related to the participants' tangible net worth, enterprise type and credit ratings while the credit ratings are determined through the combination of the credit quantification of the third parties and market operators. As there are different sets and requirements in different markets for the factors to determine the unsecured credit limit, which include the basis of assets, the rate of assets, the maximum of unsecured credit limit and the index for credit assess. The credit risks in electricity markets include the risks for the transactions completed and the future risks for the transactions uncompleted. The access items of the above markets all make a claim on the requirements of assets situation for each market participant. Those who cannot meet the requirements are allowed to obtain the access qualification by the supplement of collaterals. Finally, the problems of credit management in China are proposed, including the lack of quantitative calculation, the unsoundness of supporting law, and unclear management function division and so on. It is suggested to research the credit system from three aspects: the research and establishment of the credit limit mechanism suitable for China's national conditions, the analysis on the credit risks for different types of transactions as soon as possible, the establishment of the market access mechanism and the hierarchical management of the market participants.
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